3.STYLE DF HANDLING AND SHOWING指导和展示风格
Geir also talks about Boxers being different in some parts of the world than they are in others. The same applies to other breeds such as German Shepherd Dogs and Dobermans. I wonder if part of the reason for these divergences is that the style of handling and showing these breeds varies from one country to another. For example, in some countries these breeds are routinely ‘double handled’ with as many people outside the ring attracting the dog’s attention as there are in the ring handling them.
That means that in some countries free flowing movement, undisturbed by the dogs being constantly distracted, is hard to see. In the long run that Is bound to end up making the breeds diverge somewhat.
Again, as an aside, once when about to judge the Puppy and Junior classes for Boxers in an FCI county, I was appalled to see the person judging the adults allowing a vast amount of double handling. Balls on elastic where being thrown into the ring and then bouncing back out of the ring. Shouting to the dogs was nearly deafening, imitation chickens were being thrown in the air and then a Pomeranian was subjected to similar treatment. I asked the President of that country’s kennel club what the rules on double handling were. I was told: “They are much the same as in the UK. It is forbidden, but if you want to come back and judge the breed here again, it would be best if you’re not too strict about it.” I don’t think I have been back to judge the breed there again, and thank goodness for that! It is almost impossible to assess movement in that kind of atmosphere and so heads and other features start to become of far greater importance.
Another feature mentioned in Geir Pedersen’s article is the acceptance by the majority of judges of extra leg hair in Giant Schnauzers and the way that this has led, overt the years, to a difference in coat texture in the breed. The same, in my view, applies to some terrier breeds. Notably in the West Highland White Terrier certainly here in the UK, where there has been a tendency over the years towards far more leg hair and ‘skirts’ on the body. This in turn has, in my view, led to coat texture which by and large is far less harsh than is demanded by the breed standard.
In my own breed the Border Terrier, the fashion has changed over time. When I first started showing the breed, dogs with full coats were able to win quite easily in the show ring. Today the breed is trimmed far more than it used to be, and judges tend to accept dogs that we would previously have said were totally out of coat. The argument goes that coat condition is a short term temporary aspect and is therefore less important than other permanent features. That Is all very well but that attitude can lead to the situation where the breed is no longer able to grow the kind of proper double coat that It is supposed to have.
The precise origins of breed standards can also have an influence over breeds and the way that they have developed and they may be different from one country to another. For example, many of TKC’s breed standards even for breeds originating outside the UK, were written over a hundred years ago and have been used by breeders faithfully over many years. Some of these vary significantly from the breed standard currently used in the country of origin. Indeed, some of them were even written and accepted by TKC here in the UK, long before the country of origin itself had a kennel club of its own. For TKC to suddenly ask its breeders to change the view of a breed that they have developed over many years, would not be acceptable to grass roots breeders hence there are differences in type.
犬种标准的起始历史也会对犬种以及后期的发展方式产生影响，因此各个国家会产生差异。举个例子，TKC多项犬种标准建立于100多年前，许多繁育人多年来一直沿用这些标准, 也有一些与起始国家的犬种标准大不相同。确实，早在起始国家成立犬种俱乐部之前，TKC 以及FCI已经将一些犬种标准记录于书。对于TKC繁育人来说，突然要求他们改变认可多年的犬种标准是很不现实的，尤其对一些草根繁育人来说，很难接受，因此，长期以往犬种之间会出现差异。
For example, Saint Bernards were being shown in Britain from the 1860s and the original St Bernhard Club (note the spelling) which wrote the first breed standard for the breed was founded in 1881. Thus the first standard for the breed was written and published before the Swiss Kennel Club itself was founded in 1863.
6.WORDS AND CONTEXT 犬种术语和环境
There are also many interpretations that can be made by different breeds of the meaning of words used in their breed standards. For example, which of the following three breeds would you regard as being the longest in body? The Border Terrier; the Cairn Terrier; or the Pembroke Welsh Corgi? I think most people would answer that the Pem Corgi would be the longest, followed by the Cairn Terrier followed by the Border Terrier. In fact TKC’s breed standard for the Pembroke Welsh Corgi asks for its body to be: “Medium length.”The Cairn Terrier too should have a body which is: .Medium length. And the Border Terrier? Its standard asks for a body which is “fairly long’’.
This brings us back to the issue of context and “where you are coming from’. When the Border Terrier Breed standard was written in 1920 the most popular terrier breed was the Fox Terrier. Its standard had been written in the 1870s by some well-educated and landed gentlemen. Nearly years later the Border Terner people were mostly farmers and shepherds from the Border district between England and Scotland. They lifted many of the words straight from the Fox Terrier standard even although the breeds were rather different. For example – Smooth Fox Terrier: “Tail: Set on rather high, carried gaily but not over the back* and – Border Terrier: “Tail: Set high, carried gaily, but not curled over back*. When it came to body length they wanted to make it clear NOT that the Border should have a long back but that it should at least be longer than that of a Fox Terrier. Hence the words used: “Body fairly long.”
I’m really sorry to have to keep agreeing with him but as Geir Pedersen says, there are often many interpretations of breed standards. And probably this is no bad thing. After all, if every judge put the same interpretation on every word in every standard, the same dogs would win every week. Or even more aptly, as the civil rights activist Audrc Lordc said in an entirely different context “It is not our differences that divide us. It is our inability to recognize, accept, and celebrate those differences.”
很抱歉我不得不同意他的看法，但正如Geir Pedersen所说，对犬种标准的阐述多样。可能也不是一件坏事。毕竟，如果每个犬种都使用同一种标准阐述，那无疑每场比赛的冠军属于同一只犬只。或者正如维权活动家奥德尔·戈德克（Audrc Lordc）在完全不同的背景下说的那样，“不是差异划分了我们，而是我们认知，接受以及对待差异的方式。”
转自Dog News, 由犬界网编译。